Operation Market Garden | Animated Mini-Documentary


– We’re very excited to
announce that today’s video is sponsored by Audible,
more on that later. Hi, I’m Griffin Johnson,
the armchair historian. Today’s video, Operation Market Garden, a World War II tutorial on
how not to use paratroopers. (dramatic music) On September 17th, 1944 several
thousand allied airborne dropped from the skies into
the Nazi occupied Netherlands. More landed the next
day and the day after, comprising British, American,
and even Polish troops. This force constituted the single, largest airborne operation in history. It’s objective was to open up a route to the German Industrial
Heartland, The Ruhr Valley, in an attempt to end the war early. Instead Market Garden ended up being on of the greatest allied
setbacks of the 2nd World War, in this video we’re going to
be going through the operation day by day and location by location to explore why Market
Garden was a bridge too far. Market Garden was the brain
child of Bernard Montgomery. Famous for commanding British forces during the late north African campaign. It was designed to test
Bernard’s favored strategy for the final phase of the war in Europe by concentrating allied forces for a small yet powerful thrust into Germany. Supreme Allied commander Dwight
Eisenhower whom Montgomery often clashed with had been championing a so called broad strategy of keeping Allied forces distributed
along a wide front keeping pressure on German positions along the entire border. When offensive progress
began to slow following the liberation of Brussels
in early September, Eisenhower gave the go ahead to implement a smaller scale version
of Montgomery’s plans for a narrow front. His approval was designed to test both the strategic viability of such a thrust and the effectiveness of
the Allied Airborne Army. Still relatively new
to the field of battle. So what was Montgomery’s proposal? The plan called for a
massive flanking maneuver around the heavily fortified
German Siegfried line through the low countries. If that sounds familiar,
it’s because that’s exactly what the Germans did to the
French in both World Wars with varying degrees of success. Hey, if it’s not broken,
don’t fix it right? Market Garden was actually the combination of two component operations
named, you guessed it, Market and Garden. Operation Market was
the airborne component in which paratroopers would
land at several points between the Dutch cities
of Arnhem and Eindhoven, so secure the bridges over the Meuse, Waal and lower Rhine Rivers as
well as a number of canals. If you’ve ever been to the
Netherlands you’ll know it’s about 70% river, so
these points had to be taken before operation Garden, the
large scale deployment of armor over the Dutch-German
border could commence. This joint force, which
consisted of 50,000 troops, of the 30th core under
Lieutenant General Brian Horrocks was to begin in the
southwest and end at Arnhem. Allied commanders hoped
that if Market Garden was successful, they could end the war by Christmas of 1944. Before we delve into the details about what exactly transpired
there’s a few things we should go over. First off, those who don’t know already, paratroopers are light infantry units, who can’t carry very heavy weapons, so historically they’ve
had to rely on surprise and speed to gain the advantage. Throughout this video you’ll
notice how the Allies failed to play at those strengths. Moreover, operation Market
Garden was predicated on an overly optimistic timetable that assumed that the
paratroopers could hold out long enough for the
30th core to reach them. On top of that, the soft
Dutch soil was judged to be impassable for
mechanized and heavy armor, so the 30th core had to
follow a single paved highway that narrow channel of movement
left them badly exposed to German anti-tank fire from
all sides while traveling. Furthermore Allied planners
did not heed a report from the Dutch resistance
that a veteran panzer core was stationed nearby
undergoing maintenance but still capable of defensive deployment. Now I don’t know about you but
that sounds like a great way to lose rock, paper, scissors. Or you know, infantry tank, anti-tank. Now let’s get onto the operation. (dramatic music) Tomorrow we go into action,
if by sacrificing all this, I leave a world slightly
better than I found it, I am perfectly willing
to make that sacrifice. Private Ivor Rowbery, South
Staffordshire Regiment, killed in action, September 17th, 1944. An air armada of nearly
1500 allied aircraft and more than 400 gliders
take to the skies, the paratroopers aboard these planes will be dropped far into enemy territory completely surrounded
and nearly 60 miles away from friendly territory. In the early afternoon,
the first paratroopers hit the ground, the initial insertions are actually quite successful with soldiers at all major sites accurately hitting their landing zones. However Lloyd Clark a military historian at the University of
Buckingham, notes that, the Allied operation
began with airborne troops accurately hitting their drop zones yet their very success actually
assisted the German response from the start. Because the troops weren’t scattered, the Germans could easily pinpoint
where they hit the ground and make a quick deduction
of the likely objectives of the allied operation. Furthest to the North is Arnhem, where the first British airborne division under Major General Roy Urquhart, are to take a road
bridge and a rail bridge that both cross the lower Rhine. Urquhart’s force lands a
dozen miles to the west of their targets due to a concentration of German anti-aircraft batteries near the town of Oosterbeek. They are forced to fight through
scattered German opposition to push through objectives. This resistance does not
initially stop Urquhart’s men but it does seriously delay them. What’s more the allies lack enough planes to transport all of the men
required for this attack. Thus a large contingent
of the first airborne must stay behind to
protect the landing sites and supply drops. In yet another stroke of bad luck, the radio sets the British are using experience technical failure
that actively eliminates General Urquhart’s ability
to communicate with his men or with artillery and air support. While the German’s are
getting more organized, the Allies are getting
progressively less organized. Only 750 men second battalion
commanded by John Frost reaches either of the
divisions objectives. Their secondary objective, a rail bridge, is destroyed just as they arrive, so they hastily move on
towards their primary target, the Arnhem Bridge and hold up in 18 houses just north of the bridge. Reinforcements are stopped by the German Kampfgruppe
Spindler, assembled primarily from elements of the
ninth SS Panzer division, leaving Frost on his
own for the time being. To the south the US 82nd
airborne infantry division under Brigadier General
Jim Gavin, or “Jumpin’ Jim”, as his men like to call
him, lands with 7500 troops near Nijmegen, they take the southernmost of their two objectives, the
bridge over the Maas River as well as the undefended
Groesbeek heights to the southeast where supplies and
reinforcements will be dropped in the coming days. From here they begin
shelling the nearby forest of Reichswald, from which they expect a German counter attack. Though they aren’t certain. Later that same day a
small detachment of 400 men is sent to capture the second
bridge over the Waal River just north of Nijmegen. Unfortunately for the Americans
the 10th SS panzer division made up of approximately 3000 men rushes in to stop them from
reaching their objective. In Eindhoven the 101st
airborne under Maxwell D Taylor lands and captures three of
the five intended targets. Crucially however, the
men of the 101st fail to take the crossings at Best and Son which Nazi forces blow up behind them. Both of these bridges cross the same canal so at least one has to be reconstructed if troops are going to cross. The process greatly
slows down the advance. Worse still, an Allied glider
attached to the 101st crashes and plans for
the entire operation fall into German hands. Despite some success,
Operation Market Garden is not exactly off to an auspicious start. The landing was due at 10
o’clock but it came and went and no aircraft, gliders,
or anything appeared, Gordon “Jock” Walker,
Sergeant British Army Film and Photographic unit. The next morning poor weather in England, prevents the launch of
a second airborne wave that was initially
scheduled for 0600 hours. That deployment and many of
the subsequent supply drops, scheduled for today
failed to arrive on time if they arrive at all. As dawn breaks, John Frost is all alone, he and the Second battalion are in Arnhem, repelling contingents of
the Kampfgruppe Spindler that scrambled up from
Nijmegen from the South the night before. The second battalion is
doing an admirable job but is surrounded and
running low on supplies. The first and third slowly make their way into western Arnhem but are
stopped by German forces in the city and do not
successfully link up with the second. Meanwhile the fourth
battalion finally makes their landing but does not
join the rest of the division on this day. Urquhart himself is pinned
down during the advance of the first battalion and actually hides inside of a Dutch house for the day. Without a functioning radio to
keep in contact with his men, he is considered missing in action, thereby putting Brigadier
General Phillip Hicks in temporary command. In Nijmegen the Americans of
the 82nd have beaten back a small German attack and are reinforced with a second wave of paratroopers. However they have yet to take
the all important Waal Bridge and the Germans have begun
crossing the river by boat setting up defensive positions around the American subjectives. German commanders now I’m
possession of the Allied war plans conclude that victory
at Nijmengen is crucial to the overall defeat of Market Garden. Victory at Arnhem and
Eindhoven would be meaningless without a route between them. Speaking of which, the British 30th core arrives in Eindhoven late in the day and begins construction
of a makeshift bridge, while the 101st airborne holds off attacks from a handful of hastily
assembled German forces from the west. I think we’re going a bridge too far, Lieutenant General Frederick Browning, apocryphally, during the planning of operation Market Garden. In Arnhem John Frost is
outnumbered, outgunned, and becoming increasingly desperate. His forces now occupy only 10 houses on the northern side of Rhine bridge. The second battalion is
unable to stop German tanks from crossing and comes
under heavy artillery fire. The remaining battalions
make one more push to move through western
Arnhem and are beaten back so severely that they
actually have to retreat past their original landing zones. Meaning that the German
would get their hands on all of the new supplies. In the confusion Urquhart does manage to rejoin the first airborne
at least what was left of it. Meanwhile the first Polish
independent paratrooper brigade meant to reinforce the British
division is still unable to deploy because of
poor weather in England and the Netherlands. Meanwhile the 30th core
finishes construction and proceeds to Nijmegen where it links up with the 82nd airborne. The newly combined force
attempts to take the Waal Bridge but advances only slowly. Lastly the 101st airborne is still holding it’s position in the south
and repels a counterattack against a makeshift crossing by the 107th panzer division. Hand grenades flew in every direction. Each house had to be taken this way. Some of the British offered
resistance to their last breath, a German soldier at Arnhem. The rest of the first
airborne gives up hope of reaching these second battalion as it is pushed into an
increasingly compact area around eastern Oosterbeek. Frost himself is captured. The Polish reinforcements
are nowhere to be found however hope comes from
the south as Allied forces in Nijmegen finally make
some progress by sending a contingent of troops
across the river by boat and attacking the Germans from the rear. The 30th core and 82nd
airborne finally take control of the bridge at Nijmegen
by the end of the day. The retreating Germans attempt and fail to destroy the crossing on their way out, surprisingly the 30th corp
does not immediately move out as several of their elements
are still pinned down in the city. A rare bright spot for the
Allies in this operation. The capture of Nijmegen
means that the center of their corridor is secure for now. Out of ammunition. God save the King, final transmission from the second battalion,
First British Airborne division on September 24th, 1944. The second battalion at Arnhem Bridge is completely wiped out by
overwhelming German forces today ending their impressive hold out. Approximately 1984 men are
killed and 6,854 captured. Urquhart does not have time to grieve. The remaining members
of the first Airborne now only 3500 out of 10,000 try
to hold onto a strip of land north of the river where
potential new bridge could be constructed. Throughout the day, 750 Polish fighters, roughly at half strength
under Stanislaw Sosabowski finally touch down in Driel,
to the southeast under a reign of gunfire, the onslaught decimates them, as the 30th core relentlessly harassed by German artillery fire
finally gets in range of Oosterbeek and starts
to provide supporting fire. The soldier on the stretcher
at my feet lay upwards, his eyes heavily bandaged. I had no further use
now for my steel helmet so I took it off and covered his face, Godfrey Freedman, British
glider pilot captured at Arnhem. Today the tides really start
to turn against the Allies. In Arnhem 60 Poles
manage to cross the Rhine and join with the first airborne which itself is now
running out of supplies. Bad weather has deprived
them of crucial air support as well as the ability to resupply. When German Colonel Kurt Student launches a massive counterattack against both sides of the Eindhoven-Nijmegen corridor, the 30th core and 82nd airborne
have to take valuable time to reestablish a link to the south. Urquhart is still alone and
the walls are closing in. German snipers are beginning
to infiltrate his lines and he has fewer than 2000
utterly exhausted men left. Saturday morning a brief truce is declared and 1200 wounded British
and Polish soldiers are taken prisoner. We did not get our final bridgehead and that must be admitted,
General Bernard Montgomery. A small number of men from
the 30th core, manages to reach Driel and
establishes a connection with what’s left of the first airborne while 300 more Poles
make it across the river and attack boats. All of this is too little, too late. Allied commanders are no longer
discussing the possibility of reinforcement, their
only hope is evacuation. Under the cover of darkness, and artillery fire, the
first airborne division and their polish allies make their way across the Rhine and back to safety. All told, 1741 of the 10,000 men dropped as part of the first airborne division make it back to Allied territory. So, what went wrong? Basically everything, even the weather. As we’ve already mentioned,
the airborne troops were ill equipped to
face armored divisions stationed in the area and
the Germans seemed to know exactly where to place their defenders. That problem was compounded by the fact that the British army lacked the aircraft to drop the first airborne all at once, you tend to lose the element
of surprise when you have to drop your men into the
same spot over multiple days. Members of the Dutch
underground provided warnings about the 99th panzers but
may have also compromised the operation from the start. The Germans as a whole
were also being commanded by a renowned defensive strategist Field Marshal Walter Model, who was able to oversea his forces from
his HQ in Arnheim itself. As for Allied command,
historians tend to focus on Lieutenant General Frederick Browning, who was in charge of the
first Allied airborne army but their focus was not
one born out of admiration but rather of sharp criticism. In fact many historians as
well as General John Frost point to him as bearing
at least some of the blame for why the operation went downhill. Rather than any one issue in particular, a number of factors had
to go wrong all at once for Market Garden to fail
as spectacularly as it did. Among these problems were the placement of the first airbornes drop
zone too far from Arnhem Bridge. It’s communication black
out, the 24 hour delay of the 30th corp, the decision at Nijmegen to delay the capture of the Waal Bridge by several hours after
landing, ultimately delaying the 30th corp even further and relentlessly unfavorable weather. None the less, Market Garden
was not a complete failure at least according to the
memoirs of Bernard Montgomery published 14 years later. – I knew myself you see and that was a. – Did you ever lose a
battle Field Marshal? – No, (laughs) – [Interviewer] That’s the
important thing isn’t it? (Curb Your Enthusiasm theme music) – [Host] If you’d like to learn
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100 thoughts on “Operation Market Garden | Animated Mini-Documentary

  1. Be sure to try out audible, they've got some awesome history books you can listen to. Get a free audiobook when you start the 30-day trial, there's no reason not to grab a free book! Visit https://www.audible.com/armchairhistorian or text
    armchairhistorian to 500 500!

    This has been the hardest video for us to make! Let us know if you want longer videos from now on (12-15 minutes). If there is any misinformation or anything that needs clarification please let me know and I will add it to a corrections list.
    Corrections:
    1. Spelling error at 8:22, written "arugably" instead of "arguably."
    2. At 7:46 we say that Jim is a Brigadier General, but he's wearing two stars on his uniform as a Major General in the portrait.
    3. 12:45 Should have been 107th Panzer Brigade, not division.
    4. Pronounced Staffordshire, not Stratfordshire.

  2. Why is everybody focused on the generals and their actions?
    The fallen paratroopers have given their lives in an attemt to liberate België/Belgique and the Nederland from Nazi occupation. But even in case of success they would have been to late to save the jews.

  3. Montgomery : we will going to operation market garden
    Herry porter : we will help you
    Montgomery : no need kids
    – Operation market garden fail –

  4. these comments are a mix of people referencing hearts of iron, people referencing tf2, and people who are actually talking about the video

  5. Another way how not to use paratroops
    *Transport them to the area of heavily armed german anti air guns and send them to fight the anti air area while troops getting blown up by anti air guns

  6. I live in Nijmegen and often cross the John Frost bridge in Arnhem
    They're considering making the dropzones state monuments

  7. What gets lost to history is it was the only shot to end the war by Christmas of 1944.

    1) The Allies thought the German army was shattered.
    2) The Allies had achieved air superiority.
    3) The French channel ports were all severely damaged by the German garrisons which choked supplies. This pretty much kept all Allied armies from getting proper supplies to carry on at the same offensive pace. Patton's army probably had the best chance to get across the Rhine but had the longest supply route.
    4) By taking the Netherlands would have shortened supply routes, circumvented the German fixed defenses and stopped the V-2 missiles from hitting London.

    Not knowing the area I never understood why the Allies never attempted another sea invasion into Denmark or Northern Germany since their forces were stretched. They couldn't handle another front opened up in their rear, even if it was just half a corp.

  8. You don't mention command and communications, the troops just had to use their own initiative and no coordination. Also the allies didn't have an assault tank in the same class as the German cats. The true story is an army is the extension of the foreign politics of their country. Britain looked at post war Europe the American just defeat Germany and go home. The war was properly finished around 1990 when Poland the reason Britain and France declared war got its integrity back. Montgomery was made the popular scapegoat by Hollywood and don't mention the Americans agreed to carry out the campaign. Their are no movies about the American failures of the winter of 1944-1945 just the Battle of the Bulge. The Peel region in which the British took over from the Americans which was a battle greater than the Battle of Arnhem but silence is golden about that one. Battle of Hürtgen Forest which took place prior to the battle of the Bulge. Robert McNamara learned there his strategy which would serve him so well in Vietnam 'Search and Destroy. This was what American strategy was with their so called broad front. The parameter was to kill Germans and never mind the strategic objectives that was allocated to the air-force. Just remember the allied soldiers who paid with their lives and stop blaming the British they were broke and bankrupt. Montgomery did what the politicians told him to do, the man was not incompetent.

  9. Montgomery got lucky in North Africa and made a name for himself that way. In reality he was overrated and full of himself. He never should have been anything other than a corp commander.

  10. British Intelligence was appalling, left heavy weapons behind and didn't heed reports from Dutch Underground. The Dutch Underground has previously been penetrated with many agents being captured, so their reports were deemed unreliable. Still, why leave ALL their heavy weapons behind? Not only that, the actual plans fell into the Germans lap so they not only knew where the attacks were going to come, they also had resupply scheduels and drop zone areas etc. So many failures. 10,000 men went in, less than 2,000 came out. A complete annhilation! Way to go Montgomery. Monty's reputation never fully recovered and he was pushed aside in favor of more cautious and clear-minded Generals falling fully out of favor with Ike.

  11. So General Montgomery was an arrogant ass who blamed others for his planning failures? I am shocked, SHOCKED, I tell you!

  12. Thank you so much for this video. I live in Nijmegen and was born and raised there, but I've never received a clear explanation about what happened here. I only learnt how important the Waalbrug (the bridge over the river Waal, that is) was during this operation, and that there were a lot of delays because of which so many died, but that was more or less all.

  13. Montgomery is the typical arrogant british lidiot, with shitty strategies, a traditionalist front assaulter with nothing innovating in his tactics. However his big mouth made him look as if he always knew what he was doing, but only because he was lucky enough to always outnumber and outgun all his enemies in all battle preparations due to the number of men at his disposal. The man was honestly ridicoulus…

  14. accidently stumbled on this bridge during my honey moon in holland. realised i'd seen it before in battlefield 1942. glad i got the actual historical part learned

  15. New arrival to the channel…and I just wonder about his mispronunciation of names. Harracks instead of Horrocks…Stratfordshire instead of Staffordshire…Awkhart instead of Urquhart…does he do it on purpose? It is not because he is American, I am American, and I have no real issue pronouncing Horrocks, Staffordshire, or Urquhart. So why does he do it? An honest mistake? I guess so, but he did not seem to have any trouble with any of the other names…maybe a bit with Oosterbeek, but his mispronunciation is awfully selective.

  16. The intel that the British command had a regarding the presence of the 9th and 10th SS Panzer Divisions in the Arnhem area was more than potentially compromised Dutch information. It came to Browning in the form of Ultra intercepts as well as aerial photography. I think the truth is that Browning and Montgomery knew damned well that the 2d SS Panzer Corps was at Arnhem and simply refused to forward that knowledge any farther down the chain of command than army HQ level. I also think that this operation had two main results. It taught the US that it could not trust Montgomery and it put the arrangements for post war Europe firmly in American hands.

  17. 4:40 dutch resistance didn’t notify the allies that the dutch have ensured you can actually drive cars and light tanks across the soft soil.

  18. Operation Market Garden Questions:

    1. Did it fail because the Germans could have demolished Arnhem Bridge with explosives?
    2. Why couldn't or didn't the Germans counterattack the path XXX Corp took? There must have been a considerable supply train following the corp.
    3. What happened to the paratroopers and XXX Corp after it was deemed a failure? It appears that they held the ground they were able to take and did not retreat back to the front.

    I've read much about it and watched many videos but these points are still unclear.

  19. Market-Garden is one of those ideas where, if you don't really dig into it too much, its a great flipping idea…

    But the more you peel back the layers, the intel reports, the drop zones, the objectives, the disposition of troops, the means of logistics, the avenue of advance, and misusing Airborne as main line infantry rather than light shock troop infantry.

    It really brings up the question:
    What the hell was going on in Monty's mind? And WHY did Eisenhower not really study this more?

    I understand that, with war comes risks of grand strategy. The concept of using men or wasting them.

    But any kind of solid look over in the deviled details, Eisenhower should have flatly said "no". Eisenhower should've known (HE'S A WEST POINT GRADUATE FOR GOODNESS SAKE) that a "End the War by Christmas" plan would be overly daring, immensely risky, and minimal in its reward…

    And the entire operation just really, REALLY, reinforced that War Time trope. Hastily planned, lack luster execution, disastrous results…

  20. Little did those soldiers know even if it was successful and the war ended by Christmas they’d be stuck doing details lol.

  21. think the best way to describe Market Garden is like any other plan to end a war early. Overambitious, overconfident and underplanned

  22. If you want to get the truth read RG Poulussen's book Lost at Nijmegen (He's Dutch by the way so has no national axe to grind). The truth is the Cmdr of the 82nd Airborne failed to take the bridge. He delayed 8 hours before deciding to send Warren's battalion 504 PIR from the DZ to the bridge and instead of taking it ordered a pull back and then decided to defend against a mythical attack of a'1000' Panzers by waisting more time securing the Groosebeek Heights. By the time Gavin decided to take the Bridges the Germans reinforcements arrived and a battle ensued. When XXX Corp arrived at Nijmegen (on time) lead element 4th Guard Armoured was forced to fight for the bridge through the city of Nijmegen as the Americans were being forced on the defensive. There were two bridges by the way the Americans with help from XXX Corp launched an assault across the Waal Maas to take the rail Bridge while the Guards took the road bridge. The initial lead squadron of 5 tanks under Capt Carrington crossed the bridge but had to wait again for the infantry join them before moving on. The up shot is Gavin's failure created a 36 hr delay in getting to Arnhem before they were overwhelmed. Why Gavin failed to land on both sides of the bridge is a mystery. I agree the drop zone were dispersed, The American General Brereton who was responsible for the airdrop dispersal had the final word on that not Monty or Boy Browning. Boy Browning is also at fault for taking his HQ along which took up space valuable space which should have been assigned to Paratroopers. He was also at fault for not ordering Gavin to get on and capture the Bridge. In the After action report Gavin claimed he gave Warren pre landing orders to take the bridge. There is no evidence of this.

  23. I really do like the original way you present history, however this video was a Bridge Too Far. I am the most British person you could ever meet. A Monarchist and a protector of our history. We are equally patriotic as an American, just far quieter about it, hence I can't hold back in my opinion here. I find you ending what is a particular horror for British Armed Forces with a laugh and troll, totally insensitive to the 17000 allied deaths suffered, without even knowing how many German lives were lost. Field Marshall Montgomery is the ONLY respectful historical reference to his name, simply because a formal military title is just that, a title that should always be used. The Field Marshall is the only abbreviation that the British would ever use, and never, never Bernard. Even if you want to mock or troll his defeat, you could at least note the hell that the British had gone through before it was the Japanese and not as it should be, your CLOSEST ally that should have brought your nation into WWI. You almost left my country to be slaughtered, especially given the terrible decision that the U.S made to waste and throw aid across the Atlantic, despite the shark tank of U-Boats it had become. No escorts were even provided. Perhaps you can make that a video that we can equally laugh at. I am 45yrs old but had two Grandparents active in WWII, My Nana drove an ambulance under the carpet bombing of Manchester, England whilst my Grandfather manned an anti-aircraft gun on building tops, knowing one random hit would be the end of him. It didn't and they lived until the late 1970's. I do understand your youth, and as I've already said, I really do like your channel. Just know that since American Independence, my country has always been and will always be your closest ally, and cousins. Don't forget, it was Queen Victoria that gifted the desk your President sits at. So in conclusion, please always remember this in your work. The British would never laugh or joke at the many defeats America have sadly faced throughout history, especially the frustration of Vietnam, which the British were just 3wks away from ending Communism within, in 1946. You'd have to admit, for the length of our particular history, the British have had very few defeats against actual combat. Not bad for a tiny island, and a population that even today is a sixth of America. Thank you for reading and may Britain and American forever be friends ❤️💙

  24. XXX Corps managed to go 7 miles on day one. It arrived at the bridge at Grave, 13 miles from the bridge on the Waal, at around 0800 and was now supposedly back on schedule. It had averaged just over one mile per hour at that point. If it had continued at that pace it would have arrived at the south end of the bridge at Arnhem at around 0700 on the day Frosts' men ran out of ammo and lost control of the north end. It seems the distance from XXX Corps start point near Postel Belgium to Arnhem bridge is closer to 70 miles and not 64 as is usually cited. https://distancecalculator.globefeed.com/Netherlands_Distance_Calculator.asp

  25. A few remarks: The 'Waal River' is pronounced as 'Wahl', as in Mark Wahlberg. 
    Secondly: One of the factors of the armoured troops not being able to link up with the airborne troops in Arnhem was the deployment of the 82 Airborne at Nijmegen. Multiple historians have pointed out that Gavin's obsession with covering his flanks at Groesbeek lead to a serious delay of at least three days day in getting his troops to secure the Waal bridge. This lead to an extensive close quarters battle in the town (locally known as the battle of the Keizer Karel Plein), which made the allied forces miss out on the planned last leap from Nijmegen to Arnhem, which could have turned Market-Garden into an allied victory.
    Instead, the allied troops had to send troops across the river by combat boats, days later and leading to a huge loss of lives. (Robert Redford made it alive though, in the movie at least).

  26. I appreciate your videos.
    I'm a veteran, OIF 08-09 (Aco 307th En Bn 82nd Abn).
    Talking about how "NOT" to use paratroopers is you opinion from the chair.
    Paratroopers volunteer knowing well of the hazards of our choice.
    Espirit de Corps!
    We bring the fight to the enemy.
    Sappers Lead The Way!

  27. Operation Market Garden: A real life version of the Video game 'hey diddle diddle, dumb ass up the middle", or "YOLO up the middle"…..

    WHy trying to stuff an entire Corps up 1 road is a really bad idea.

  28. your pronunciation of the names is HORRIBLE, lamentable. You need to learn how to read old boy and stop murdering names. It's HORROCKS, not HARROCKS. and it's URQUHART prononounced URUQUHART, not Arkwart.

  29. @4:30 you mention that the information of the Dutch resistance was ignored, possibly on purpose.

    This is indeed correct since the Dutch resistance were full of collaborators with the Nazi’s. Many Allied soldiers died or were imprisoned due to false Dutch Resistance intelligence.

    Unfortunally this time the intelligence was correct and mistakenly ignored 🙁

  30. Monty operation market garden was stupid so many die I hate war just to die for what the world needs to be as one all work together for better world but that's not going to happen anytime soon

  31. When you consider how the Reds were hammering their men against the German lines, losing millions of troops in the process, you have to appreciate that the Allies were, at least, trying to be clever about it.

  32. Pretty good job telling this. tiny thing Urquhart is Erk-utt — though your Eindhoven was quite excellent 🙂

  33. Looking at operation market garden's Wikipedia page, it tells me that the Germans lost 159 aircraft. How did that happen?

  34. I think the other caused why 1st British airborne couldn't complete to hold the arnhem is when 101st airborne and 82nd didn't accomplish their mission on time. It cause delay to the convoy, what if 101st and 82nd airborne complete their mission. It could be a great victory in arnhem. RIP to the 8,000+ British who died or captured in arnhem just to defend and complete their task.

  35. Montgommery only ever took 1 risk, this, and it ended in disaster.
    But apparently 2 years earlier having odds in your favour of 10:1 in armour & men, total air supremacy and access to all your enemies signals and letting the beaten enemy escape is a sign of greatness.

  36. The biggest mistake was giving monty ponty the supplies for the operation instead of giving them to someone like patton to drive on berlin.

  37. Dude, I hoped as a Millennial Arm Chair General, you'd present this operation with an interesting and unusual few minutes of relevant overview context of where the entire Euro theatre w. war2 was at the time (like where the Soviet forces were at that moment, the eastern front Germany was facing, and the war in Italy, and where Bradley, Patton et al were, all at the time of Market Garden, and, for sure, what was up with being Dutch, (or liberated French & Belgian) at that moment, since no one has ever bothered to do that, even though it happened in their country) Yours is like everyone else's… interesting, but, not outstanding.

  38. Montgomery was an insubordinate clod whom Eisenhower should have promoted and safely hidden away. Eisenhower, always a politician, was too kid-gloves with Montgomery and many other egomaniacal generals in the region.

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