Wiring an Office Network

hey there this video is about installing
network wiring in a small office. So, i’m standing in what will become the
reception area of a small doctor’s office. You can see, I’ve got three outlets that
are in progress right now. Ones there, one over there, one over there. And, the way
that you wire up a network for a small office or actually in a scale-able sense
even for a big office are similar. the idea is still the same. You start in
one central location. So, in this little room right here is our
network cabinet. This is a central location. This is where all the network
wires have to come back to. This network cabinet has the blue
network cables inside of it. These are category five (Cat5e) unshielded twisted pair cables that are for ethernet. And, you can get a box that at your local hardware
store. Usually a box of 1000 feet cost about
$100 US or maybe a little bit less. Fire-rated is more expensive so if
you don’t need fire-rated try to avoid that. Anyway, what happened is
that I brought the cable box in here. (You know, that real of a thousand feet of
cable). And, I pull these individual blue wires from this central point up through that
hole back there into the ceiling. If you see this false ceiling here. Above the
ceiling tiles that’s just an empty space up there. If you’ve never had the opportunity to stick yoiur head up there usually there is just empty space above
those tiles. Sometimes there is insulation on top of them. But generally, you have anywhere
from two to sometimes as much as six or eight feet of empty space up there. Anyway, you run those wires from that central point and through the ceiling. If you will just imagine with the me.
If you could see up above those tiles you would see a couple blue wires going
across the ceiling above those tiles and then they come down the wall. Now most walls in commercial
construction are usually hollow. So as you can see in there, there is about 3
inches of empty space. Sometimes they’re not hollow. Sometimes they have insulation
in them. And then depending on unique circumstances you
may have walls that just simply don’t have any space at all. And that’s a whole
different ball of wax But the the short version of this story
is you need to get these Network wires from that central point where we just
were to every outlet location where you’re going to need an Ethernet
connection. And then what you do, is you put these category five (cat53) modular ends on them. Those modular ends then, in turn, fit into
a wall plate. OK? And then the wall plate is labeled
with the number. Now why do we have to have a number? Well, the reason we have a number is so
that we know that for that outlet right there which is D06 (short for
Data number six). Let me bring you back here. I’ll
show you a little bit later that I’m going to mount a patch panel in here.
And, that patch panel will have a 1 2 3 4 5 6 ecetera. So, that “D06” will match the
“six” on the patch panel there. That will become our horizontal network
wiring system which we will use to connect the router or switches that will
live in this cabinet out to all the various locations. So, I’ve got a receptionist office… I’ve also got a patient exam rooms… See? Here’s a an outlet that i have run
the cable to, but I haven’t put the face plate on yet. so when I’m all done, there will be
faceplates on all those outlet locations with a corresponding number that relates
to the patch panel in the back. And then that will be my network wiring system. ok i’ll show you a little bit more in a
few minutes. Ok so now … I’m going to wire an outlet here for you I’m gonna “terminate” this jack. The slang word is “rj-45” but the formal word is actually 8p8c. So, for instance these little guys right
here… these are modular ends with the rj45 outlet. They’re often called “RJ-45” but the real terms is 8p8c. Anyway,
rj45 is what they get called a lot so…. I’ve got this guy right here. And, on my wire
I strip back some of the jacket. I kind of do this by rubbing my scissors
on the edge. And then sometimes, depend on the type of cable you’re working with, the cable
might be brittle enough that you can just kind of snap it off. Then I get rid of
my excess rip cord or dental floss – depends on what you want to call it Now, this method I used it’s not really
recommended. I’ve been doing this for so long that I have developed a touch that
I can do this and pretty safely say that i’m not nicking any of the wires on the
inside. but if you’re new at this I recommend you make
that opening cut like that with your scissors, but then take the rip cord and
pull back some. Sort of like you’re peeling a banana. Then get rid of the skin by
cutting it off after that. Because that way you avoid you know nicking the wires
inside. Maybe when i do the next one I’ll show
you that. Ok so these jacks, depend on what brand you get, all come with a
different punch down pattern. What I mean is See how this has got like white blue and
then blue, then white green and green? And also white orange and Orange.
white brown and brown and so forth. They correspond colors on these wires.
And you can look up other videos on YouTube about how to punch down on a
category 5 jack. So this is just kind of a quick and
dirty to kind of help round out the video a little bit. But so what i do is
match the pattern of the wires to the colors on the sides of the jack. And
I what I was going to say is, it depends on what brand of jack you get. This
pattern could be different So you have to pay attention to the colors. There’s two
sets of colors here . The top row is what they call 568a.
you can see a little bitty “A” right there and the lower pattern is what they call 568b. See a
little bitty “B” right there in the middle. So I’m going to be using 568b. It is the more
commonly used wiring scheme. There’s nothing wrong with 568a or 568b, at least in my mind, but I’m just
partial to “B” And, what matters is that if
you do 568B on your jack, is that when you do your patch panel your patch panel.
That also needs to be done in 568b style so it matches. OK, so what I’m doing right now is I’m
taking the wires and I’m spreading them out into the little grooves with the wire
colors that correspond to the colors on the side of the jack. So, I’m taking the orange pair here and
I’m putting the white orange in the front groove and the solid
orange in the back. This corresponds to the pattern right there for B. And once I get
that all done i’m going to just double check it one more time because an ounce
of prevention is certainly worth a pound of cure. Because, by the time you get this
thing all put back together and then go to test it, if it doesn’t work it’s certainly
worth having spent just an extra couple seconds to review your work So what I do is I look closely and I say: “okay I’ve
got the white/orange & orange . I’ve got white blue & blue, white/brown & brown, white/green
and green. And once I’ve decided that it checks out ok I take my punch down tool right here.
And I use my 110 punch to terminate the jack Now, when you do this you’ll want to do it against
the wall. But, it will scar the wall so what I try to do is do it down near the outlet
surface itself because once i put a plate on it will cover up anything that
might have scarred by me doing this. As you do this, if you’re doing it right what should happen is the sharp end of
the tool should be perforating or even breaking off the wire right there Now you’ll notice I just threw the excess
wires into the wall and someone called me out on that the other day when I was making a video similar
topic. and so they said “well why’d you throw it in there when you could just go through it in the trash
can?” Listen, for any of you trolls out there thinking about making comments
about that if you did this stuff day in and day out
like I do you would get tired of making trips to the trash can. Throwing a few pieces of excess wire
inside the drywall isn’t going to hurt anything. Now with this particular brand of jack,
( not all jacks, )but this jack comes with a little zip-tie or a wire
tie that you can wrap around the very base which kind of helps reinforce the
wire jacket right there. And if you do this right, ideally, the wire
jacket should mate right up against the bottom of the jack. what you shouldn’t have, is a lot of
exposed wire hanging out of the back of the jack. This one also comes with caps. Most do
come with caps. Some do not. But the most come with caps that you put on after
you’re done. Also what I’ll do is since i wrote
the number on the cable when i was pulling these earlier, I’ll take the
number and I’ll write it on the side of the jack just to help reinforce with a
visual this is my number. Ok, then i’ll also be
using a label maker to put we use a label maker to put a 3 across the top here. Now snap that insert into the back of the plate. okay i’m going to terminate the white
one now. And, then when I’m all done with that we will go put labels on and put
that into the wall. ok…. Alright, so now we’ve reached a point
where i have put all the outlets on all over the office. Now it’s time to
terminate the patch panel. So remember this is my cabinet where all the wires
come to. Alright and here’s all my data cables. What I did when I was
installing them is I wrote oops drops on there when I was
installing the cables i wrote the numbers on the end with the marker pen so what I’m going to do is just like
those jacks i showed you that was terminating well the patch panel is just
kind of like a like a more aggregated version of the jack so here I’ve got 24
cat5 aphc connectors so on the back I’ve got 24 corresponding places to
punch down the the cables and their number one two three four cities so what
I’m going to do is take my cables in the number that they’re ordered and match
them up with the numbers here and punch them all down and then i’ll have a
complete network pathway between the numbers here in the front and the jacks
out there with the corresponding numbers so let’s get that done i’ll show you
what that looks like terminating the patch panels really no
different than terminating the individual Jack’s except now all the the
places for the punch downs are all just very tightly integrated together as you
can see there’s the same pattern there the top one is 560 day the bottom one is
516 p see how it’s got like a white blue than
solid blue white or solid orange etc this is another the B section so that’s what I did I’ve got white blue
blue white orange orange or green green brown brown and so there’s a couple of
different ways you can do this some people prefer to lay out all their
stuff first and then to the termination I kind of like to go one or two at a
time so i’ll spread one out like that kind of that why shape you know where
the wars in the green or shorter and the blue and the Browns have to stretch a
little more each day outside and then i’ll go ahead and terminate those and
then i’ll go on to number two and then three then four five and six a sitter
and so on so this is nice to do when you’re when
you’re doing a brand new insulation because you can actually take the patch
panel and lay it down on something flat like this and terminate the wires I’m forcing when you’re adding a wire to
us it’s a system has already been installed you kind of have to you know
reach up inside the cabinet terminate the wire on the back of the the patch
panel wall it’s already mounted so I’m gonna get that done show you what that’s
all what it looks like when I’m all done ok
now the patch panel has got all the eight wires terminated on it and this
one comes with these little caps that you can put on the back to kind of help oh I guess you know block off air and
and maybe you know help reinforce the connection I personally not a big fan of those
because i believe that if you do your wire management right and you’ve done
your terminations right there is no reason why those wires should pop back
out of there they’ll come out of there if if your wires are not managed
correctly and there’s two too much tension on pulling them out of the
sockets but anyway so if yours comes with the caps and go ahead and put the
caps on doesn’t hurt anything like i said i’m just not a lot of big big fan of the caps anyway so now that
my term determinations are done what will happen next is I’m going to
have to really manage my wire back into the cabinet so basically taking this
slack and just kind of dressing it in there along the walls and then
ultimately my panel is going to get mounted up in there and then I can start
doing some testing on my outlets in my patch panel ok show you that a little bit alright so the patch panel is done and
mounted and armed you’ll notice that there’s this maze of
the wire running around and down and up and across that’s actually for a reason and I may
have gone just a little crazy with that that’s known as a service loop and it’s
there for a couple reasons one is it for some reason something happens to the
cable near the patch panel he gives you the reserve amount of slack
to be able to pull some more slack and returning the cable was cut off the end
and returning it the second thing it does is gives you
the flexibility to move the patch panel so say the network configuration change
one day we need to move things around we can move this panel down to here or
if they decided to put in like a floor-mounted network Iraq say over here
in this corner by the closet I’ve got a good six feet of slack that I
could move that patch panel without having to rerun all those cables again
and also while we’re on the topic of the network cabinet you know this just happens to be the one
that i’m using for this doctor’s office you don’t need to go get one of these
big Network cabinets you can simply get a patch panel and a they make like these
little one you or to you hinged brackets that you just mount on
the wall so all you really need for instances like this little white board
you can just get a little white board like that mounted horizontally instead of
vertically and you can put the little hinge bracket on there with a patch
panel ok those are very expensive the hinge
bracket to think about 20 bucks you can get inexpensive patch panel off amazon
or a model price for probably about the same about twenty dollars ok now I’m going to begin the testing ok
so now I’m down to testing so I’ve got two different ways i can
test this thing you’re looking at right here is called the certifier it’s an
expensive piece of equipment is designed to stress the wire and tested for its
maximum capacity to certify that it’s either cat5 cat5e or cat6 etc i recommend on the other hand that use something
simple like this this is just a continuity tester and it works really
simply it’s got an rj45 or a phc connector on both ends and when it’s
connected to two ends of the cable it simply says current down the line on
each pair ok so I’m going to turn it on right now
and what it does is at the far end you should see these little lights turn
green in order if any of their red or if it goes out of order or if one of the
lights doesn’t light up that means there’s something wrong with either the
cable but most likely what’s wrong is that something that you terminated
incorrectly so either one of the ends of the jack is either not terminated right
or didn’t get terminated all the way ok so again i’m recommending you just
get a continuity checker I have to use this special certifier
tester because i’m doing work commercially and I have to provide
results to my client alright so let’s show you how this works
so let’s take for instance d 1 so plug mice my little continuity
tester d 1 i’ve got it turned on then I’m going to take this other little
guy and go back to the patch panel plug him into port 1 and what I should
see after i hook it up it should see these lights turn green
and I’m not which makes me wonder forgot my numbers
mixed up yeah i got my numbers mixed up do you want Andy to or flop so i just
got to go back and flop those cables and make sure that they’re in the right spot
by the right labels ok so that’s what it should look like when you test the cable
to test out okay okay and that about concludes this thank you

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62 thoughts on “Wiring an Office Network

  1. I may have missed it but just to verify did you use a tone probe to identify each wire when you connecting your cables? Just wondering.

  2. Hi, is there any specific order you need to follow when mounting equipment inside the rack cabinet? I usually see UPS backup battery mounted at the bottom, whereas main router is usually mounted up the top, what about rest – for instance; server, NAS, patch panel, switches, IP phone server, KVM console, NVR recorder, etc.? Should you leave some space between them to avoid overheating? Thanks for explaining the basic stuff with cable management – I also don't like to walk to the trash can over and over 🙂

  3. Electricians and communication people always throw their trash in the wall or above ceiling tile it's unacceptable Behavior this is not a troll this is saying you are an asshole because when the construction happens again guess who has to clean it up that's right the labors or a sharp piece of fucking wire or metal bracket falls from the ceiling tile cuz you left a fucking up there when we take it down and we get injured so do it the right fucking way and throw in the trash like it's supposed to be dumb fucker

  4. What an amateur. He drops the rubbish within the wall he strips the cable with a damn scissor! That is the kinda guy that would get fired by my company.

  5. The cover caps are needed no matter if you do the wiring right or not. They are made to keep the dust out of the connections. If you do not it will cause static in your lines then it will cause data loss as to slower speeds. Just like in an old turn dial radio that has not been used for a while. When you turn the volume up and down you get SNAP CRACKLE POP. That is caused by dust between the plates of the volume control. Great video, keep up the great work.

  6. 8:10 It dose not hurt anything but it is just bad manner. Just have a mini trash can handy lazy "professional". If the electricians in my company would do that they would be gone fast. Well maybe it's because I am german and we just do everything so much nicer and cleaner.

  7. Long time ago I had my A+ cert and I read some books and got an MCSE NT4 cert (with no actual server or admin experience). Any way, our network admin must have been a smooth talker to get his job. He was doing patch panel work and I asked him if he was using the A or B standard. He didn't know what I was talking about so I gave him a diagram of the standards. I think he had a certain order he wired them and stuck to it. Something must have got back to management 😏 because a week or two later, he had to rewire everything. Must have been a couple hundred connections there.

  8. I still prefer to have patches with bricks, instead of doing it with fixed attachments. Networks change, cables get demolished, … A brick makes it easier to replace a cable.

  9. I think you have every right to toss some of that wire trash in there. When will anyone see it? Who cares. The think that matters is the stuff that you can actually see and that if concealed will occasionally be visible. Good video

  10. I toss it in the wall to, doing over 200+ and picking/sweeping up after your done is a lot more work. Nice and neat 👍👍

  11. The placement of the server rack box was horrid, it covers 1 3rd's of the light making it difficult to replace the lights.

  12. Lol most of those comments are about dumping useless stuff into that hole while probably no one will never ever care about. So im gonna comment about the knowledge he shared for free – thank you sir! Thats a nice piece of advice for people with releated questions. Again, thank you!

  13. Calling you out on disposing trash into the wall is not trolling. But otherwise, thank you for these very helpful videos.

  14. RJ45 is the designation from Bell Labs for a data line with a programming resistor terminated with a keyed 8P8C , it's a misnomer that's used so commonly that the definition has essentially changed to mean an Ethernet modular plug.

  15. Great video man.
    I am a network engineer and what you are doing now is how I began in IT. Your work is where it all begins and essential to the whole setup.
    Brought back memories of having to use the "fish sticks" and going through some weird places in some old buildings in SF just to reach the MPOE
    Keep it up brother.

  16. i'm confused so you throw the clippings in the wall but what do you do with the trash created by the jacks? carry a trash can with you and there is no need to go back and forth.

  17. trow trash in the wall cause he's a lazy slacker. It's easy to carry a small container or trash can you slacker…

  18. "to all you trolls calling me out on throwing trash in the wall"

    My dad taught me "have pride in the work you do". Did you skip that lesson in life?

    That laziness and attitude stereotypes all us tech guys and is the reason why I won't sub out wiring to "help" somebody because you talked about saving time, well you don't save no time being lazy not carrying a small plastic bag with you to toss in the trash can rather than walking back and forth, as you claim, to the trash can.

    I mean you're doing this for a CUSTOMER. I can see cutting corners and being lazy for non-paid friend/family work. I finished a wiring job earlier this week and the guy helping me saw the ceiling tile mess then found the vacuum at the business, turned it on and cleaned that up even though the customer told us not to worry about it. That extra 5 minutes made us look less lazy than you.

    Call me a troll in response which I have no problem you calling me that but I'd rather be called a troll for calling you out than a customer calling me lazy.

  19. Those grates in the ceiling look like those used in a plenum HVAC system. Which by code requires plenum rated cable… so doesn’t look like this installation is to code

  20. I found this video to be very informative, however I think you made an error, but I'm no expert. I've managed an office Network and helped wire another office. And I'm taking Network Plus. But I'm pretty sure that you need fire resistant cables , plenum RJ-45, if you are running the cables through a wall or drop ceiling in an office environment. There are fire codes, which mandate these in some cases.

  21. Why do you throw the trash into the wall? ^^ Woho, he calls us troooollz! Jackass…
    Since im in support, im NOT doing the cables every day. But when, i carry a little bag to put the trash into. And i'd say that 99,99% do it this way.

  22. I think you got a great video and it's very informative except for the trash in the wall deal. I don't mean to be a troll, but I am going to call you out on it. As an electrical mechanic, I always carried the box that my Outlets or devices came in with me that way I can put the trash in the box and dispose of it when I was done rather than just littering it into the wall whether anyone was going to see it or not. Work should always be done clean and you mentioned that an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure. Good Tradesmen always clean up after themselves!

  23. I'm and Network Solutions Junior Architect, you did a fantastic job explaining your methods and the industry standard for terminating CAT5E, Great work. I'd be very interested to see you do a video on Fiber!.

    Great Work!

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